If you are looking for a flat iron that does not cost a fortune but is a healthy and safe option for styling your hair, Ceramic can be the solution to your problem. Owning such a hair straightener will not only ensure safety but will enhance the quality of your hair as well.
In this write-up, we have tried to analyze the pros and cons of this material, the varieties, and the suitability factor to give you a truthful overview of some of the most popular flat irons with china clay components. While the misguiding information and overwhelmingly exaggerated reviews on the web can make you go crazy, we can help you with sincere research and the 5 best hair straighteners with your desired components.
- Ceramic Hair Straighteners Buying Guide
- Top Ceramic Hair Straighteners
- Other Popular Products We Didn’t Choose
Quick Review of Our Top 5 Ceramic Hair Straighteners
|Remington S9500PP Pearl Pro Ceramic Flat Iron|
|LumaBella Keratin Touch Flat Iron|
|Babylisspro Nano Titanium-plated Ionic Flat Iron|
|Revlon Salon Straight Copper + Ceramic Flat Iron|
|Revlon Smooth Brilliance Ceramic Flat Iron|
Ceramic Hair Straighteners Buying Guide
What is a Ceramic Hair Straightener?
Ceramic is a form of clay but scientifically we call it an ionic compound in which the electrons are immobile, unlike metals. It is synonymously used with china or natural clay in the context of hair styling tools. It is interesting how this clay is used to make pottery has taken over the hair industry in the last few decades in styling tools.
This clay is a classic ingredient to make heating units in hair drying, flat iron and other styling tools. The reason is its thermal conductivity. This material is a safe electronic insulator but at the same time a safe heat conductor.
A ceramic hair straightener or a flat iron is a styling tool that has two plates installed in it made with extracts from this clay. The two plates clamp together and press and glides through your hair to create straight hair or style your hair otherwise.
What Hair Types Are Such Flat Irons Good for?
In this era of technological advances, ceramic hair straighteners have evolved in many ways. Which means, there are more than just plain hair straighteners with such materials only. Such hair straighteners or flat irons have plates installed in them that have combinations of other materials in them alongside the extracts of this natural clay.
As long as it has this particular clay material, it is safe to use on all hair types. However, these combinations are made to enhance the quality of specific hair types and address other hair problems while straightening hair at the same time.
Ceramic on its own is great for fine hair for its gentle healing properties. But when this classic clay together with other materials and metals are used to straighten hair, the results can be strikingly different and can be used on other hair types as well. As a result of combining different kinds of materials, there are varieties of ceramic hair straighteners that are suitable for fine hair.
On the other hand, some other varieties are good for thick hair. Some manufacturers chose to come up with all in one solution and successfully incorporated materials with ceramic that suit all hair types.
What Are the Available Combinations of Ceramic Hair Straighteners?
There are flat irons that have a combination of plates that have ceramic and other metallic compounds. Following are the combinations of hair straighteners that are available in the market.
Which Combinations Such Flat Irons Do We Recommend for Fine Hair?
The general understanding is that Ceramic is healthy for fine hair but whether all the combinations are equally healthy or not is something to think about. As you can see, there are in total 7 kinds of hair straighteners you can find in the market with such combinations. But which one of these straighteners are genuinely appropriate for fine hair is a legit concern.
Among these seven types of ceramic straighteners, the ones that are not appropriate are Titanium, Copper and Bio-Ionic varieties. Titanium creates intense heat which is usually balanced out by ceramic, but for fine hair, it can be a bit too much unless there is controllable heat. Same goes for Copper and Volcanic minerals when it comes to styling fine hair.
On the other hand, recommended ceramic varieties for fine hair are Porcelain, Pearl and Plain Ceramic flat irons.
Porcelain is just an improved version of plain china clay that emits far infrared energy. This version has more heat retention qualities and makes hairstyles more long-lasting. Hence, porcelain hair straighteners are a great option for styling and straightening fine hair.
Pearl infused hair straighteners are a great innovation for fine hair. Pearl extracts are proven to be really great for fixing frizzy and dull hair. Pearl also adds a lustrous look to the surface of your hair and makes it extra shiny. With the already existing goodness of Ceramic, pearl enhances the quality of your fine hair manifolds. Therefore, if you have fine hair, there is no reason why you should not want hair straightener that is blessed with the goodness of pearl.
Another safe option for fine hair is a flat iron with solid ceramic plates. The gentle heating emitted from this naturally acquired clay is perfect for fine hair. Unless you feel the need for fancier versions of such flat irons and your intention is to purchase something that will fulfill your temporary needs, plain ceramic flat irons can do that job just fine.
What Are the Recommended Flat Iron Types for Thick and Curly Hair?
Styling thick and curly hair has always been a challenging task, mainly because of the density and the nature of such hair types. However, that does not stop you from wanting to look great and style your hair is a desirable way. If you have thick or curly hair, you need to keep a few things in mind while purchasing your flat iron, such as, how much heat can your flat iron produce and whether it can smoothen out the coarseness of your hair.
But to find the proper straighteners for such hair types, you need to chuck out some flat iron types that aren’t appropriate from your list. The types used for fine hair such as porcelain, pearl, and plain ceramic are known for their gentle heating. Hence, these flat irons are not the best options for thick and curly hair.
For coarser textured hair, you need materials on your flat iron that can create stronger heat. This is because the cuticles of thick hair are more integrate compared to fine hair. The bonds of such hair types can be broken and restructured only after sufficient heat is applied. Therefore, you need to choose the combinations that have the ability to create such heat. Choosing from combinations of Ceramic and Titanium or Copper or Volcanic minerals are therefore the best choices for such hair types.
Titanium flat irons are very popular but to ensure safety you need to make sure you are getting yourself one that has a coating or a mixture of natural china clay in the plates. The heat can get too much to handle it its titanium alone. The mixture of this natural clay balances out the heat of titanium coherently and hence, Titanium-Ceramic is a perfect choice for thicker hair types and it also distributes the heat evenly. We highly recommend this combination of hair straighteners for thick and curly hair.
Copper is a soft, malleable and ductile element that has very high electrical and thermal conductivity. Therefore, it is understandable that this is a good fit for thick and curly hair for its high heat conductivity. But since this metal is malleable, the combination of ceramic clay is essential for it to keep its shape intact and that is exactly what a few hair straightener companies are doing.
As a result, we have copper hair straighteners which have both the eligible heat of copper and conditioning properties of china clay that will glide through your thick and curly hair beautifully. Copper hair straighteners are hence another recommendation for thick, curly, African American or afro hair types.
Another addition to the technological advances of hair straightening is the combination of volcanic minerals and china clay. This has grown more popular as ‘bio-ionic’ technology. Volcanic rocks are basically magma erupted from volcanos that later became cold and form into rocks. These rocks are rich with minerals. These minerals can be diverse but mainly bauxites, basalts, rhyolites, etc. are infused in them.
Volcanic minerals provide nutrients in soils and help plants grow but how these minerals are great for hair is still unrevealed. But looking at how bio ionic hair straighteners work, it can be said that they work similar to porcelain but with a higher heat range. The results of such hair straighteners are particularly great on thick, curly and ethnic hair types.
What Are the Recommended Combinations for All Hair Types?
While the information on choosing flat irons for specific hair types can be great for some people, many prefer getting an all in one solution. If you are living with your siblings or people with diverse hair and owning a straight iron seems more like an investment for all, then you can choose straighteners that fulfill such needs. The kind of Ceramic hair straightener that aims people with such needs is the one with Tourmaline and china clay components.
Tourmaline is a gemstone from the quartz family and apart from its popularity as a semi-precious stone used in various jewelry, this mineral has properties that enhance the quality of your hair. It emits far infrared energy and works equally great on all hair types. The growing popularity of Tourmaline hair products is because of its effectiveness in strengthening the bonds and giving it a healthy lustrous outlook that really stands out.
In hair straighteners or flat irons, the tourmaline extracts are used in the plates mixed with ceramic. When your hair comes in direct contact of such combination of tourmaline plates, it glides through perfectly and gives you amazing straight hair. Because of the gentle far infrared energy produced the heat is really balanced but effective at the same time. Hence, this combination is safe to use in all types of hair.
What Are the Recommended Frizz & Damage Control Options for These Flat Irons?
Although your hair looks silky straight right after you’ve just used your flat irons on them, the aftermath can be a frizzy nightmare. But of course, every problem must have a solution! For Ceramic Flat irons, if you have the additional technologies that promise to fight frizz effectively then you are pretty much safe! These technologies are Ionic, Infrared, Steam and Keratin technology.
Ionic technology will ensure your hair is blessed with the goodness of negative ions. Negative ions seal the open endings of the damaged cuticles. Alongside the heat produced by the plates, if your hair straightener has ionic technology then your hair will be damage and frizz free for a prolonged period of time. Ionic technology works great on all hair types.
Infrared energy is produced automatically when ceramic is heated. But in this context, when you flat iron particularly mentions it has infrared technology, it means it has more ceramic components than usual. As a result, the infrared energy is intensified and works efficiently to reduce frizz. This technology is also the kind that suits all hair types.
Steam technology works really great on styling hair of all kinds and improves its composition in general. For styling, you might have seen the rising popularity of steam hot rollers. In steam hot rollers usually distilled water is used. But for flat irons with steam technology, plain water is good enough. These flat irons have a chamber which you have to fill up with water. When connected, the water heats up and produces steam and releases on to your hair through its porous plates.
Keratin Technology is said to be fighting frizz but its usefulness is specific to damaged hair. Using keratin requires you to take expert advice on whether it is meant for your hair type. Although keratin infused flat irons do not mention whether they are suitable for specific or all hair types, the idea is it will not suit everyone. Therefore, using a keratin infused hair straightener might not be the best idea for all hair types.
Ceramic Hair Straighteners - Good or Bad?
The advantages of Ceramic makes it a winner over many other materials that are used on flat irons. The reasons are many and legitimate at the same time. Following are the good sides of these flat irons.
Affordable and available: Firstly because it is affordable and more available. This natural clay as a material itself is less expensive compared to Tourmaline or Titanium. It is also easily available at the same time. As a result, this can be used generously in an industrial level in hair styling gadgets and tools. Therefore, it makes sense why ceramic flat irons or other styling gadgets are abundant in the market.
Safe and gentle heating: It might be cliché but its gentle and safe heating ability is what makes it extraordinary. Imagine having to use flat irons on your hair without the protection of gentle infrared heating and burning your hair in the process against the metal plates. If it wasn’t for the gentle heating of Ceramic, using hair straighteners would not have been so popular. The infrared energy produced by this material is responsible for the gentleness of its heating and that is why you will barely find any flat iron these days without any coating of china clay in the plates.
Enhances the quality of hair: Apart from its properties that ensure gentle heating, it also conditions the hair and its cuticles and brings out the best in them. As a result of being exposed to the natural conditioning goodness of this material, your hair will have a healthy shine of its own.
The Bad Sides: While the heat of ceramic is gentle, it might not be sufficient for all hair types and that is the only disadvantage of this component. With the technological advances in the hair industry, we, therefore, can see a variety of flat irons which have one or more materials combined with this clay to compensate for that.
What Is the Ideal Plate Size for All Lengths of Hair?
1 inch is the standard size for flat irons. By standard size we mean, it is suitable for usage in all types of hair. Flat irons purchased for family use should have plates that are at least 1 inch in size.
However, if you want something specific for your hair type then this information is for you. If your hair is thicker than usual, curly is nature or ethnic in origin, you might want to get a straightener that has 1.25- 2-inch plates. The reason is, wider plates can give you more coverage and make your job a little easier.
What Should Be the Heat Range for These Straighteners?
Many users get confused about what the proper heat range should be for flat irons. The truth is, if your straightener has Ceramic and other combinations, the heat will be balanced anyway. As long the heat is controllable and its maximum heating range is up to 350-455 degrees for thick and other hair types. For fine hair types specifically, the minimum heat should be 300 and the maximum 455 like else.
Which Temperature Control Option Is Ideal?
While a regular analog temperature control dial works too, we usually recommend an LCD or LED temperature control settings. Because LCD or LED settings are smart and have a few advantages. Some of these devices can memories your preferred heat settings while others are color-coded to help you choose the right temperature easily. Some hair straighteners come with auto adjusting smart sensors and it adjusts the heat automatically and if you get hold of such flat irons you are lucky! It’s 2021 and there is no reason why you would not up to your hair straightening game!
In light of the above information about Ceramic hair dryers, we had to be more precise about the mandatory settings for a flat iron of such kinds. And hence, we have made separate specifications for fine hair, thick and curly hair and all types of hair. Simply see the table that addresses your hair type.
|Must-have Features||For Fine Hair||For Thick Hair||For All Types of Hair|
|Recommended Materials for Plates||Porcelain/ Pearl & Ceramic||Titanium/ Copper /Volcanic Minerals & Ceramic||Tourmaline & Ceramic|
|Recommended Technology for Frizz and Damage Control||Ionic/ Infrared/ Keratin||Ionic/ Infrared/ Keratin/ Steam||Ionic/ Infrared/ Steam|
|Plate Size||1 Inch||1 to 2 Inches||1 Inch|
|Temperature Control Options||Digital LCD/ LED/ Smart Heat Sensor||Digital LCD/ LED/ Smart Heat Sensor||Digital LCD/ LED / Smart Heat Sensor|
|Heat Range||Minimum 300-455 Degrees Max||350-455 Degrees Max||350-455 Degrees Max|
Top Ceramic Hair Straighteners
Following are the detailed review of the 5 best Ceramic hair straighteners of the year. We have carefully picked them in line with our specifications and they will serve your purpose well for sure. We have selected two straighteners for fine hair, two straighteners for thick and curly hair and one for all types of hair.
Ceramic Straighteners for Fine Hair
Fine hair has delicate cuticles and requires gentle heat and options that keep the original quality of the hair intact. Keeping the nature of fine hair in mind we have chosen two hair straighteners that will do a better job compared to many other hair straighteners. See the comparison table below to know more.
|Must-have Features||Remington S9500PP Pearl Pro Ceramic Flat Iron||LumaBella Keratin Touch Flat Iron||CHI Original Hairstyling Iron||Cloud Nine Original|
|Materials||Pearl & Ceramic||Ceramic||Ceramic||Ceramic|
|Technology||Ionic & Infrared||Keratin||Ionic & Infrared||None|
|Plate Size: 1 Inch||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Digital LCD/LED /Smart Temperature Controls||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Heat Range From a Minimum 200 to 300/455 Degrees Max||Yes (Minimum 300 and Max 450 Degrees)||Yes (Minimum 300 and Max 455 Degrees)||No (Max 395 Degrees)||No (Max 200 Degrees)|
Reasons for Not Choosing CHI
We opted out CHI Original Hairstyling Iron because it does not have any digital temperature settings. Also, its highest temperature is only 395 degrees. If you are choosing a flat iron for family use, this temperature range may not be very useful.
Reasons for Not Choosing Cloud Nine Original
Again, this is a popular product we couldn’t include it on our list because it does not comply with our temperature range. 200 degrees highest can be of use to only very damaged hair and will do no good to hair with medium volume. This one also does not have ionic or infrared options and a digital LED or LCD display and hence we had to reject this.
Our Top Picks
Remington S9500PP Pearl Pro Ceramic Flat Iron
We have picked this hair straightener as the perfect match for fine hair. The reason why this particular hair straightener really stood out is because of its pearl ceramic technology alongside the whole other specifications that match very well with ours. But for your unbiased understanding of why this particular hair straightener is better than the rest, we have compared this with two other popular hair straighteners with similar components as well.
This Remington flat iron is infused with pearl extracts and ceramic. Pearl and china clay as mentioned earlier is a great combination for fine hair because of the combined goodness of ceramic and pearl extracts. While the clay extracts are doing its duty of gentle heating and protection from heat-induced damage, pearl extracts are working on enhancing the outlook of your hair by conditioning it further.
Added to the already existing infrared rays, this straighter is ionic as well. Which means it fights frizz effectively by producing negative ions and interacting with the damaged cuticles. Pearl extracts + Ceramic + negative ions, what else can be better than this trio to bring back the lost shine in your fine hair!
Its plates are 1 inch in size which is the standard plate size for all hair types but in this context, this is all you need for adorning fine hair with various styles possible using a flat iron. 1 inch plates are not only great for creating the classic straight look, but it can also be used ergonomically to create waves, curls or add a little twist to your boring hair. The swivel cords in this respect help a lot.
Its digital controls take flat ironing the game to the next level! While regular temp-control works just fine, the digital option makes it a lot more convenient and makes this device befitting to the contemporary tech revolution. You can conveniently choose your preferred temperature using the easy buttons and the LCD display. And the best part is you can lock the temperature that suits you the most.
Among its additional features, it has a 30-second heat up facility and an auto shut off option, both of which saves time and energy.
LumaBella Keratin Touch Flat Iron
Lummabella Keratin Duel touch is our second pick for fine hair. Although this one here has more ceramic components than anything else, it works really well on fine and delicate hair because of its Keratin technology.
Keratin is really effective on fine and damaged hair. Combining with the gentle heat of ceramic, keratin actively repairs the damaged cuticles and fights frizz. Straightening your hair against its plates infused with clay extracts and keratin micro conditioners infused plates will, therefore, make your hair naturally shiny and bring its smooth texture back.
But the most attractive thing about this flat iron is its smart temperature control option. It has advanced heat sensors that automatically detects hair dryness and damage and adjusts the heat accordingly to protect your hair from damage. You can also yourself choose from its 5 heats. Its overall temperature options are really impressive and unique.
Keratin micro conditioners teamed with its smart heat sensor works really well to prevent further damage and repair the previous damages. Lumabella claims to reduce probable hair damage rate up to 50 %.
Its plates are 1 inch in size and can be used to straighten and twist it to curl and create waves and other styles too. Also, 1 inch is just the perfect size for straightening fine hair. It can also be used as a curling tool because of its 360 degrees swivel cord that allows you to twist and turn comfortably.
Overall it is ergonomic, stylish and a great pick for your fine hair.
Ceramic Straighteners for Thick and Curly Hair
The popular understanding is that Ceramic is not for thick, curly, ethnic or Afro hair as long as they are not combined with other materials that produce enough heat. Keeping the nature of thick and curly hair in mind, we have therefore picked two hair straighteners that will do the job perfectly. We have also compared them side by side of other popular products. See the comparison below.
|Must-have Features||Babylisspro Nano Titanium-plated Ionic Flat Iron||Revlon Salon Straight Copper + Ceramic Flat Iron||BaBylisspro Porcelain Straightening Iron||Bed Head Attention Grabber Flat Iron for Smooth Sleek Styles|
|Materials||Titanium & Ceramic||Copper & Ceramic||Porcelain & Ceramic||Tourmaline & Ceramic|
|Plate Size: 1 Inch to 2 Inch||Yes (1.25 Inch)||Yes (1 Inch & 1.5 Inches)||Yes (1 Inch, 1.5 Inches, 2 Inches)||Yes (1 Inch)|
|Digital LCD/ LED /Smart Temperature Controls||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Heat Range Up to 300/455 Degrees Max||Yes 450 Degrees||Yes 455 Degrees||Yes 450 Degrees||Yes 400 Degrees|
Reasons for Not Choosing Babyliss Pro Porcelain Ceramic
BaByliss Pro Porcelain Ceramic has everything but a digital temperature setting. Because of our strict standards, we could not pick this as one of our top products. Also, this product is misunderstood as a fit for thick and curly hair but in reality, it is not.
Reasons for Not Choosing Bed Head
Bed Head is also rejected from our list because of its analog heat settings. It also does not have Ionic, infrared or steam heat settings to deal with your frizz and damage related hair problems.
Our Top Picks
Babylisspro Nano Titanium-plated Ionic Flat Iron
BaByliss Pro Nano Titanium is one of the most popular hair straighteners out there and this one is because of its blend of titanium and ceramic that is perfect for thick and curly hair. There are many titanium-ceramic flat irons but none stands near this one in terms of popularity and results. It is needless to say BaByliss pro has created a masterpiece.
Apart from the perfect balance of the classic natural clay and Titanium that works on your thick and curly hair like magic, this flat iron is ionic. Negative ions actively interact with the coarseness of your hair and work through its volumes to smoothen and soften them into beautiful straight hair. And most importantly it fights both existing and occurring damage and frizz.
This hair straightener has a digital LED temperature control system that heats up to 450 degrees and lets you choose your temperature accordingly. But it has a stay-cool Ryton housing that prevents titanium from overheating.
It is available in 1.25 and 1.75 inches and that makes it super convenient to use on extra thick hair and gives a lot more coverage than a 1-inch hair straightener can give.
Last but not least, it has a swivel cord and ergonomic design for convenient use and prevents wrist aches. It comes in its classic blue shade and is an attractive addition to your dressing room.
Revlon Salon Straight Copper + Ceramic Flat Iron
Copper hair straighteners are there in the market not in plenty and only a few brands could master the arts and sciences of it. Copper Ceramic plates are especially suitable for thick and curly hair. Because of copper’s great thermal conductivity and china clay’s perfect heat, they together strike the balance very well and straightens your thick and curly locks into buttery smoothness.
The plates of this straightener are coated with triple ceramic. Added to the copper-ceramic duo is its infrared technology that ensures frizz reduction and heat protection. It claims to do 24 hours frizz control and add 63% more shine to your hair. Infrared energy is proven to be healthier than many other alternatives to frizz control and hence, it is clearly a good sign that this flat iron has it.
This flat iron has a Digital LED temperature control that allows you to choose your preferred temperature easily from 180 degrees to 455 degrees.
It is available in both 1 inch and 1.5-inch plates. We recommend you to get the 1.5 inches one if your hair is extra thick and curly. This will give you a lot more coverage than 1-inch plates will.
Among its additional features, it has 60-second auto shut off option and plate locking options for easy storage. Overall, it is a great tool to style your thick and curly hair.
For All Types of Hair
If you are looking for a family hair straightener that everyone can use regardless of the hair type then the following hair straightener can solve your problem since it is designed to be for all types of hair.
|Must-have Settings||Revlon Smooth Brilliance Ceramic Flat Iron||Xtava Professional Infrared Hair Straightener||Infiniti Pro by Conair Tourmaline Flat Iron|
|Materials||Tourmaline Ceramic||Tourmaline Ceramic||Tourmaline Ceramic|
|Plate Size: 1 Inch||Yes (1 Inch)||No (2 Inches)||Yes (1 Inch)|
|Digital LCD/ LED/ Smart Temperature Controls||Yes||Yes||No|
|Heat Range Up to 300/ 455 Degrees Max||Yes 450 Degrees||Yes 455 Degrees||Yes 450 Degrees|
Reasons for Not Choosing Xtava
Although Xtava is infused with Tourmaline, it is not available in 1 inch hence it’s not suitable for hair of all lengths and volumes.
Reasons for Not Choosing Infiniti Pro
Infiniti Pro on the other hands have analog controls while we are particularly looking for more upgraded products with digital controls.
Our Top Picks
Revlon Smooth Brilliance Ceramic Flat Iron
Yes, it is yet another REVLON hair straightener that we could not chuck out for its features that match our standards just perfectly. This one though is Ceramic-Tourmaline hair straightener that your friends can borrow and your family can use without worry.
Tourmaline is believed to be extremely healthy and befitting for all types of hair whether thick or thin. The combination of Ceramic and Tourmaline is, therefore, a very easy solution to your family’s hair diversity. It will not only straighten your hair to silky smoothness, but it will also protect your hair from heat and strengthen its overall integrity. You are bound to notice the difference after using this to straighten your hair.
Digital temperature control is again, something that many flat irons lack but this one has it and they are color-coded depending on hair types and suitable heat for them. As a result, you can choose your convenient temperature easily from 10 variable options.
Its 1-inch plate size is the standard size that can be used by anyone and can be used to style desirably. But the best part is, the edges of the plates are rounded and can help you get more volume to your hair and create waves and flips.
Apart from all its features that will help you look effortlessly gorgeous, it has 360 swivel cord for easy handling and auto shut-off option you save you from unnecessary electricity bills. Overall, this is a perfect package for you and your loved ones.
Other Popular Products We Didn’t Choose
We have gone through hundreds of straighteners and read through numerous consumer reports to find you the best of product. In this process, we came across many popular products that did not comply with our standards and hence we could not include them. Flat irons from brands such as PYT, Hera, and GHD were among them.
Among so many varieties of ceramic straighteners available, it is easy to get confused and get a flat iron that does not live up to your expectations. But this article is here for you to work as a guide to help you choose among some really great hair straighteners that have china clay components and let you know all about them. While ceramic is the safest material out there, it is important to know your purchase because your straightener is not just the plates and much more. If it does not have a strong exterior to hold the plates, you would not want to invest in it. Getting a hair straightener from a reliable brand will make your hair styling journey a lot more enjoyable and keep your hair’s health in check, so choose wisely.
Go back to the flat iron home page.